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Digital Dilemma: 5 Reasons to Reconsider Buying an E-Reader in 2023

As a digital technology expert who has closely followed the rise of e-readers over the past 15 years, I‘ve witnessed their rapid evolution from niche novelties to mainstream media devices. Since the first Amazon Kindle launched in 2007, e-readers have upended the publishing industry and changed the way millions of people consume books.

E-reader adoption has grown steadily year-over-year, with the number of US e-book readers rising from 16% in 2011 to 30% in 2021, according to Pew Research. Globally, e-readers now make up over 5% of the total $15 billion consumer electronics market. Their portability, storage capacity, and instant access to massive digital libraries are undeniably appealing.

However, as someone who has tested and reviewed dozens of e-readers over the years, I‘ve also become increasingly aware of their drawbacks and limitations compared to traditional print books. While devices like the Kindle Paperwhite and Kobo Clara HD claim to offer a superior reading experience, in many ways they fall short of the real thing.

In fact, I would argue that for many people, investing in a dedicated e-reading device is not the best choice, especially in 2023. Here are five compelling reasons, backed by research and data, why you should reconsider buying a new e-reader right now:

1. You don‘t truly own your e-books

When you buy a physical book, it‘s yours to keep, lend out, resell, or give away as you please. But when you buy an e-book from Amazon or another digital retailer, you don‘t actually own it in the same way. Instead of an asset you can hold in your hands, all you‘re purchasing is a license to access a digital file under a specific set of conditions.

This distinction has huge implications for consumer rights. Under the terms of Amazon‘s Kindle Store, for example, the company reserves the right to delete e-books from your device without notice or explanation. This is not just a hypothetical scenario – it‘s already happened several times:

  • In 2009, Amazon remotely erased purchased copies of George Orwell‘s "1984" and "Animal Farm" from Kindle devices after a rights dispute with the publisher. Ironically, the move was compared to the "memory hole" censorship practiced by the totalitarian regime in "1984".

  • In 2012, Amazon suspended the account of a Norwegian woman and denied her access to 43 purchased e-books. Her account was only restored after the story went viral on social media.

  • Since 2019, Microsoft has been removing e-books from the libraries of customers who purchased them through the Microsoft Store, due to the discontinuation of the service.

Because of Digital Rights Management (DRM) protections, you also can‘t freely lend or resell your e-books the way you could with a physical copy. While some services like Kindle Unlimited and OverDrive allow temporary library-style loans, the process is cumbersome and limited compared to just handing a paperback to a friend.

In contrast, a print book purchase is permanent and unconditional. No one can come into your house and take your books off the shelf. You‘re free to annotate the margins, dog-ear the pages, and keep the book forever. That sense of ownership is a fundamental part of the emotional attachment many readers feel towards their book collections.

2. The cost of convenience adds up quickly

At first glance, e-readers seem like an economical choice. A new Kindle starts at just $100, while the average price of a hardcover bestseller has ballooned to $17 in recent years. However, when you factor in the total cost of ownership, e-reading often ends up being more expensive than buying print books.

Let‘s break down the numbers. The base model Kindle retails for $100, while the mid-tier Paperwhite is $150 and the premium Oasis costs $280 and up. But the device is just the start. Most people also end up buying:

  • A case or sleeve to protect the e-reader ($15-60)
  • A Kindle Unlimited subscription for $10/month ($120/year)
  • Individual e-book purchases, which average $7 each
  • Replacement devices every 2-5 years as batteries degrade or new models are released

Over the course of 5 years, a Kindle Paperwhite owner who reads 20 books per year can easily spend over $1,000 on their e-reading habit when you include the device, case, subscription fees, and e-book purchases.

In contrast, buying 20 used paperbacks per year at an average price of $4 each would cost just $400 over the same period. Borrowing books for free from the library would reduce the cost even further. And you‘d still have the option to recoup some of that cost by reselling the books when you‘re done with them.

Of course, this simplistic analysis doesn‘t account for harder-to-quantify factors like the space savings and convenience of carrying an entire library in your pocket. But it illustrates that e-reading is often a more expensive proposition than it appears at first blush, especially for avid bookworms.

3. E-readers can impair reading comprehension and retention

Since the early days of e-readers, researchers have been studying whether reading on a screen is cognitively equivalent to reading on paper. While the results are mixed, a growing body of evidence suggests that e-reading negatively impacts focus, comprehension, and retention compared to print.

A 2012 study by Dartmouth‘s Tiltfactor Lab found that participants who read a short story on an iPad retained significantly fewer narrative details than those who read the same story in print form. The researchers theorized that the haptic feedback of turning paper pages and the visible progress of advancing through a physical book enhances spatial awareness and memory formation.

Similarly, a 2014 experiment by USC scholars found that university students performed worse on quizzes when they read course material on an e-reader versus in print. The differences in performance were more pronounced for longer, more challenging texts. Students also self-reported higher levels of eye strain, headaches and fatigue when reading on screens.

More recently, a 2019 meta-analysis by University of North Dakota researcher Virginia Clinton aggregated data from 29 studies comparing print and digital reading outcomes. Among the key findings:

  • Print readers scored higher on tests of overall comprehension than digital readers.
  • Print was judged to be easier and more pleasant to read than digital text.
  • No significant difference was found in reading speed between print and digital.

One theory for the comprehension gap is that screens lack the tactile cues of print that help readers mentally map information and track their progress through a text. The infinite scrolling and searchability of e-books may also promote skimming and scanning behaviors that reduce understanding of the material as a whole.

Lighting and glare factors unique to digital displays may also play a role. A 2018 study by SUNY Optometry found that the unnatural blue light emitted by LEDs can lead to visual discomfort, reduced blink rate, and faster mental fatigue – all of which make it harder to engage with and remember what you read.

To be fair, some studies have found no significant differences in reading outcomes between print and digital. And features like text-to-speech, adjustable fonts, and built-in dictionaries can enhance e-reading for certain users. But for most people, old-fashioned books still seem to be the best format for deep, immersive reading.

4. Blue light from e-readers can disrupt your sleep and eye health

One of the most overlooked drawbacks of e-readers is their potential impact on sleep quality and circadian rhythm. Unlike print books, all e-readers emit artificial blue light, which has been shown to suppress melatonin production and increase alertness at night.

Blue light is a natural part of the visible light spectrum, with wavelengths between 380 and 500 nm. During the day, exposure to blue light from the sun helps regulate our sleep-wake cycle and boost mood and attention. But at night, when our brains are expecting darkness, artificial blue light can confuse our internal clocks.

The problem is that the peak wavelength of most e-reader LEDs falls around 450 nm, which is near the most potent part of the blue light spectrum for melatonin suppression. A 2015 study by Harvard Medical School found that reading a light-emitting e-book before bed reduced evening melatonin levels by 55% and made it harder to fall asleep compared to reading a print book.

Over time, chronic melatonin disruption from nighttime e-reading can lead to a host of downstream health effects like weight gain, insulin resistance, and even some types of cancer. Blue light exposure may also contribute to digital eye strain and retinal damage, though more research is needed.

Some newer e-readers like the Kindle Oasis and Kobo Libra H20 offer adjustable warm light settings that reduce blue light emissions in the evening hours. However, many popular models like the basic Kindle and Paperwhite still use unfiltered LEDs.

If you do use an e-reader at night, consider enabling the blue light filter if available, wearing amber-tinted computer glasses, and putting your device away at least 2 hours before bedtime. You can also reduce your overall blue light exposure by using dim red lights for nighttime illumination and installing blue light blocking software on your phone and computer.

5. E-readers contribute to electronic waste and environmental damage

Finally, it‘s important to consider the environmental footprint of e-readers over their lifecycle. While digital reading reduces demand for paper, e-readers still have significant costs in terms of natural resource extraction, energy use, and waste generation.

The core components of e-readers – including rare earth elements, plastic casings, and lithium-ion batteries – require mining and refining processes that can contaminate soil and waterways. For example, it takes 100 tons of ore to extract 1 ton of the rare earth element Cerium, which is used in e-reader screens.

Manufacturing and shipping e-readers also generates carbon emissions and other pollutants. A 2009 life cycle analysis by the Cleantech Group estimated that the carbon footprint of a Kindle is roughly 168 kg of CO2 over its lifetime, compared to just 7.5 kg for a printed book.

But perhaps the biggest environmental issue with e-readers is e-waste. Because they contain toxic materials and lack easily replaceable parts, most e-readers end up in landfills at the end of their relatively short lifespans (3-5 years on average).

Less than 20% of electronics are properly recycled globally. The rest leach heavy metals and flame retardants that can persist in the environment for decades. The UN estimates that the world generated a record 53.6 million metric tons of e-waste in 2021, and predicts that number will double by 2050.

Granted, print books have their own ecological costs, from deforestation to chemical inks to transportation emissions. But a single print book can be reused 20 or more times when you factor in library loans and used book sales. There‘s also a healthy market for recycling books into paper, cardboard and other forest products.

While nostalgic arguments about the "smell of books" have their limitations, there‘s no doubt that print is a more durable, recyclable and environmentally-friendly format over the long run. Until we solve the e-waste crisis, e-readers will continue to exact a heavy toll on the planet.


As someone who has evangelized e-readers for many years, it pains me to highlight their drawbacks. I still believe that e-readers can be a wonderful tool for certain users and use cases. Their convenience and accessibility features have undoubtedly helped millions of people read more books.

However, the technology is not a panacea, and its benefits are often oversold. When you scratch beneath the surface, e-readers have some significant downsides in terms of user experience, health impacts, cost, and environmental sustainability.

Ultimately, I believe that print and digital books both have important roles to play in promoting literacy and a love of reading. But individuals should carefully consider their own needs, preferences, and values before jumping on the e-reader bandwagon.

If you do decide to invest in an e-reader, I recommend opting for a model with a high-quality E Ink display, adjustable color temperature, and compatibility with open ebook formats like EPUB to avoid vendor lock-in. Use it selectively for travel reading or sampling new titles, rather than making it your exclusive reading method.

At the same time, don‘t underestimate the power and pleasure of print books. Support your local library, used bookstore, or independent bookseller. Participate in community book swaps and donation drives. Most importantly, choose the format that brings you closest to the words on the page and inspires you to keep reading.

The joy of reading transcends any particular technology or medium. As author Anna Quindlen says, "Books are the plane, the train, and the road. They are the destination and the journey. They are home." Whether you reach that destination through an e-reader, a paperback, or even an audiobook, what matters most is that you never stop exploring.