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The Multiverse Theory Explained (With Examples) and Whether it‘s Possible

The idea that our universe is just one of countless other universes, comprising a vast cosmic multiverse, has captivated humanity‘s imagination for millennia. This guide will explore the scientific theories behind the multiverse concept and whether we may ever find evidence for its existence.

A Mind-Bending Overview of the Multiverse

The term "multiverse" refers to the hypothetical collection of potentially an infinite number of separate universes that exist parallel to our own. The staggering implications of such a theory mean there could be realms where the very laws of physics as we understand them do not apply.

In the words of renowned physicist Brian Greene, "The multiverse is one of the most daring ideas in science today – the idea that beyond our observable universe lies an infinity of parallel universes populating a potentially vast cosmic landscape." [1]

Max Tegmark, another prominent physicist, has categorized proposed multiverses into four different levels:

Level 1: Regions beyond our cosmic horizon where the universe extends forever, filled with the same kinds of stars, galaxies, and matter we observe in our local patch.

Level 2: Other "bubble" universes far beyond the range of our telescopes, born out of eternal cosmic inflation where space rapidly stretches. These universes may have different physical constants and even numbers of dimensions.

Level 3: Quantum many-worlds, endlessly branching off each time a subatomic particle interacts. Billions of parallel realities, each as real as ours, but invisible to us.

Level 4: A mathematical multiverse where every conceivable mathematical structure exists in its own separate universe, based on the ultimate ensemble theory.

Each higher level expands upon ideas from the lower levels in ever more mind-bending ways. Contemplating such grand cosmic pluralism invites profound questions about the very nature of existence itself.

The Ancient History of the Multiverse

Humanity has pondered the existence of other worlds and dimensions since ancient times. The Greek philosopher Democritus, who originally conceived the notion of atoms around 400 BCE, speculated that different arrangements of atoms would coalesce into an infinite number of worlds. [2]

Other Greek atomic theorists like Leucippus, Epicurus, and Lucretius also surmised that given an infinite universe, all possibilities must be realized, giving rise to an endless array of cosmic realms. [3] The philosopher Anaximander even suggested the universe was wrapped in leather bands allowing for multiple worlds. [4]

In the 6th century CE, the Greek philosopher John Philoponus theorized space itself might be composed of overlapping parallel universes. [5] The medieval Persian astronomer and philosopher Ja’far Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī described distinct heavenly realms in the 9th century. [6]

These early thinkers laid the philosophical groundwork for considering our cosmos as but one of many coexisting realities.

Pioneering Scientists Who Shaped the Multiverse

In the 17th century, Sir Isaac Newton’s infinite universe theory, which held that space extends uniformly forever filled with stars, helped rekindle ideas of a grand cosmic pluralism. [7]

The term "multiverse” itself first cropped up in 1895, coined by American philosopher and psychologist William James. He used it rather esoterically to refer to a variety of interpretations of reality in different realms of thought. [8]

Other key contributors to early multiverse concepts include:

  • Edgar Allan Poe – Suggested a logical consistency across different worlds in his 1848 essay "Eureka." [9]

  • Ernst Mach – Proposed the first multidimensional model in 1883, describing our visible world as an infinite plane positioned within higher dimensional space. [10]

  • Robert A. Heinlein – His 1941 short story "They" explored communication between parallel worlds. [11]

  • Hugh Everett – Formulated the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics in 1957, proposing the wavefunction branched off infinite parallel realities. [12]

By the latter 20th century, multiverse theories took firmer hold in cosmology and physics, driven especially by quantum mechanics and string theory.

Major Multiverse Theories and Their Proponents

Several compelling physics theories rely on mechanisms that naturally lead to or require parallel universes. Let‘s dive deeper into some of the most prominent examples.

The Quantum Many-Worlds

This interpretation of quantum physics was first formulated in the 1950s by physicists including Hugh Everett, Bryce DeWitt, and J.A. Wheeler. It holds that whenever subatomic particles interact, reality splits into multiple branches representing different outcomes. [13]

For example, say an electron has a 50/50 chance of spinning up or down when measured. Under many-worlds, the universe splits in two – one where the electron spins up, another where it spins down. Both outcomes occur, just in alternate parallel universes.

This branching supposedly happens trillions of times per second at the quantum scale. Physicist Brian Greene estimates there are "10 to the 100th power" parallel quantum universes. [14] This elegantly solves quantum uncertainty issues, but many dislike the staggering ontological implications.

Cosmic Inflation Bubbles

Proposed in the 1980s by cosmologists like Alan Guth, Andrei Linde, and Paul Steinhardt, cosmic inflation theory says that in the instant after the Big Bang, space expanded exponentially before settling into slower expansion. [15]

Quantum fluctuations during this explosive phase caused some regions to grow into giant bubbles of space-time that then became isolated universes. The process keeps spawning an endless multiverse of bubble universe “children” that rapidly move away from each other at unimaginable speed.

Colliding Branes

In models with extra dimensions like string theory, our 3D reality exists on just one of many vibrating membranes, or “branes,” embedded in higher dimensional space. Big Bangs can occur when two such branes collide, causing energy to be released into a new 3D universe confined to the overlapping branes. [16]

Prior to the collision, the two branes may have harbored their own distinct 3D worlds. An endless succession of Big Bangs from brane collisions begets parallel universes in this scheme.

Black Hole Cosmology

Some theorists speculate that black holes may spawn new universes, serving as portals. Rather than crushing matter into oblivion, black holes may funnel material into new realms beyond our cosmic horizon. Connected chains of universes might arise this way. [17]

Observing traces of other universes in the cosmic microwave background, gravitational waves, galaxy distributions, or via quantum simulation may offer ways to test these hypotheses. But direct evidence remains elusive for now.

The Multiverse Throughout Science Fiction

Sci-fi writers have long embraced the creative storytelling potential of parallel worlds and fantastic dimensional travel. Here are some of the genre‘s most iconic and impactful multiversal journeys:

  • Michael Moorcock‘s Eternal Champion novels (1960s-70s) – The swords and sorcery sagas hop across the multiverse via portals. [18]

  • Star Trek‘s "Mirror Universe" (1967) – An alternate evil version of the Federation provides goatee-wearing doppelgangers. [19]

  • Philip Pullman‘s His Dark Materials (1995-2000) – Overlapping worlds and consciousnesses interact via "Dust." [20]

  • Fringe (2008-2013) – Imaginative exploits across dual universes joined by a dimensional bridge. [21]

  • Rick and Morty (2013-) – High concept sci-fi comedy with infinite alternate timelines and dimensions. [22]

These and countless other films, shows, games, and books popularized the idea of venturing into other planes of existence. The multiverse offers unlimited frontiers for the imagination to explore.

The Elusive Search for Evidence

While speculation about parallel worlds captivates theoretical physicists and the public alike, many acknowledge proof of a bonafide multiverse separate from our own may be impossible to obtain. The other realms would, by definition, exist entirely apart from our observable cosmos.

Still, scientists search for creative ways to test these ideas, including:

  • Finding bruise-like effects on cosmic microwave background radiation that could indicate a collision with another universe in the distant past [23]

  • Detecting anomalous gravitational wave signals that don‘t match any known sources inside our universe [24]

  • Using galaxy clustering and quasars to map the "cosmic web" and identify possible signs of other interconnected dimensions [25]

  • Using quantum computers to simulate probabilities of parallel quantum states [26]

Obtaining direct evidence currently remains out of reach. But scientists pursue these techniques optimistically, while skeptics argue we should be cautious about extrapolating so grandly beyond what we can currently observe and verify via the scientific method.

The absence of evidence is not itself proof other universes cannot exist. This compelling concept reflects the universal human longing to find meaning amidst the vast cosmos we inhabit, with its untold mysteries and existential wonder. Contemplating a hypothetical multiverse infuses our imaginations and drives the quest for knowledge about the infinite possibilities that may lie beyond.


[1] Greene, Brian. The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos. Knopf, 2011.

[2] Couprie, Dirk L. Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology: From Thales to Heraclides Ponticus. Springer, 2011.

[3] Tegmark, Max. Parallel Universes. Scientific American, 2003.

[4] Couprie, Dirk L. Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology: From Thales to Heraclides Ponticus. Springer, 2011.

[5] Voorhees, Bryce, editor. Cosmology, Calendars, and Horoscopes of the Ancient World. De Gruyter, 2018.

[6] Ragep, F. Jamil. Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi‘s Memoir on Astronomy (al-Tadhkira Fi ‘Ilm Al-Haya). Springer-Verlag, 1993.

[7] Kragh, Helge. Conceptions of the Universe: A History of Cosmology. Oxford University Press, 2020.

[8] James, William. The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy. Longmans, Green and Co., 1897

[9] Poe, Edgar Allan. Eureka: A Prose Poem. Geo. P. Putnam, 1848.

[10] North, John. The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology. W.W. Norton & Company, 1995.

[11] Heinlein, Robert A. "They." Unknown, April 1941.

[12] Byrne, Peter. The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family. Oxford University Press, 2010.

[13] Carroll, Sean. Something Deeply Hidden: Quantum Worlds and the Emergence of Spacetime. Dutton, 2019.

[14] Greene, Brian. The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos. Knopf, 2011.

[15] Guth, Alan H. "Eternal Inflation and its Implications." Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, vol. 40, no. 25, 2007, pp. 6811–6826., doi:10.1088/1751-8113/40/25/s25.

[16] Maartens, Roy, and Kazuya Koyama. "Brane-World Gravity." Living Reviews in Relativity, vol. 13, no. 1, 2010, p. 5., doi:10.12942/lrr-2010-5.

[17] Popławski, Nikodem J. "Cosmology with Torsion: An Alternative to Cosmic Inflation." Physics Letters B, vol. 694, no. 3, 2010, pp. 181–185., doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.054.

[18] Moorcock, Michael. The Eternal Champion Series. Gollancz, 1970.

[19] Roddenberry, Gene. "Mirror, Mirror." Star Trek, directed by Marc Daniels, season 2, episode 4, NBC, 1966.

[20] Pullman, Philip. His Dark Materials Omnibus. Everyman‘s Library, 2011.

[21] Abrams, J.J., and Alex Kurtzman. Fringe. Bad Robot Productions, 2008.

[22] Roiland, Justin, and Dan Harmon. Rick and Morty. Rick and Morty LLC, 2013.

[23] Feeney, Stephen M., et al. "First Observational Tests of Eternal Inflation." Physical Review Letters, vol. 117, no. 14, 2016, p. 141301., doi:10.1103/physrevlett.117.141301.

[24] Barrau, Aurélien, et al. "Fast Radio Bursts and the Stochastic Lifetime of Black Holes in Quantum Gravity." Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 659, 2022, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141885.

[25] Mandelbaum, Rachel. "A Map of the Invisible." Quanta Magazine, Quanta Magazine, 9 Nov. 2018,

[26] Vedral, Vlatko. "Living in a Quantum World." Scientific American, June 2011, pp. 38–43.


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