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Malcolm X: The Revolutionary Civil Rights Activist

Full Name Malcolm Little
Born May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska
Died February 21, 1965 in New York City (age 39)
Cause of Death Assassinated
Resting Place Ferncliff Cemetery
Occupation Minister, Activist
Spouse Betty Shabazz
Children 6 daughters
Height 6‘4"
Net worth $150K
Social Facebook, Twitter, Instagram

Malcolm X was a renowned Muslim minister and prominent human rights activist known for his involvement in the civil rights movement. Through his bold advocacy of black empowerment, self-determination and identity, he became one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century.

Early Life and Conversion to the Nation of Islam

Malcolm Little was born in 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His family faced constant threats from white supremacist groups including the Ku Klux Klan, and his father was believed to have been murdered by these groups when Malcolm was just 6 years old. After his mother was institutionalized, Malcolm lived in foster homes and worked odd jobs. He was first arrested at age 20, and in 1946 was sentenced to 10 years in prison for larceny and breaking and entering. It was in prison that he joined the Nation of Islam after being introduced to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad. He shed his "slave" surname Little, declaring himself "Malcolm X" instead.

As a child, Malcolm and his family members were targeted in racially motivated attacks, including having their home burned. These traumatic experiences shaped his future philosophies on black oppression in America. In prison, he underwent a profound self-education, reading extensively about history, philosophy and religion. His brother Reginald introduced him to the Nation of Islam, which provided him with his first exposure to Black Nationalist ideas. Joining the Nation of Islam and meeting Elijah Muhammad had a transformative impact on Malcolm‘s life.

Rise to Prominence and Splinter from the Nation

After being released from prison in 1952, Malcolm X quickly rose to become a minister and national representative for the Nation of Islam. He established new mosques and recruited thousands of new members across the country. He became known for his uncompromising articulation of the evils of white racism. Major events include:

  • 1952 – Joins Nation of Islam after prison release
  • 1953 – Becomes assistant minister of Detroit mosque
  • 1954 – Becomes minister of Harlem mosque
  • 1957 – Helps expand Nation of Islam membership
  • 1959 – Gains national prominence from TV documentary
  • 1964 – Leaves Nation of Islam to start Muslim Mosque, Inc.

However, Malcolm began to clash with the Nation of Islam leadership in the early 1960s. Disillusioned by moral misconduct he observed within the group, he left the organization in 1964 and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. He made his definitive break from Elijah Muhammad public with his powerful "The Ballot or the Bullet" speech in April 1964.

Views on Race Relations and Black Empowerment

During his time with the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X preached a philosophy of black self-reliance. He rejected integration and non-violence as unrealistic for African Americans to achieve freedom. He argued that blacks should defend themselves "by any means necessary" against white violence and oppression. However, after leaving the Nation of Islam, his views evolved. He began emphasizing the shared struggle for human rights of African Americans and Third World peoples.


  • "We declare our right on this earth to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence by any means necessary."
  • "I, for one, believe that if you give people a thorough understanding of what confronts them and the basic causes that produce it, they‘ll create their own program, and when the people create a program, you get action."

In his later years, Malcolm X moderated his message of separatism and adopted a pan-African, internationalist stance dedicated to achieving human rights for people of African descent worldwide. He also reconsidered his views on working with progressive white groups in the name of justice and equality.

Assassination and Enduring Legacy

Malcolm X‘s assertive promotion of black identity and self-determination made him a controversial figure. Death threats against him escalated after his split with the Nation of Islam. While delivering a speech at the Audubon Ballroom in New York City on February 21, 1965, he was fatally shot on stage by members of the Nation of Islam.

Although his life was cut short at only 39 years old, Malcolm X had a lasting impact on the civil rights movement and beyond. He laid the foundation for the Black Power movement, giving validity and legitimacy to demands for black self-determination. His influence shaped a generation of activists and the development of black cultural identity in America. Malcolm X popularized the ideas of Black Nationalism and Black Pride that persist in movements today. As an iconoclastic visionary and electrifying orator, his legacy lives on as one of empowerment and radical social critique.

"As long as we think of a leader in the terms of a benevolent father figure, we will have a leader. This is the concept of a follower. But if we understand that leadership is service, to serve and motivate others, we will have leaders all around us. And leadership is not a birthright, it is a responsibility." – Malcolm X

Studying Malcolm X has been a lifelong journey for me. I‘ve always admired his courage, intelligence and masterful communication skills. He wasn‘t afraid to speak difficult truths and radically challenge social conventions – qualities I try to live up to as an activist and writer myself. Malcolm X‘s story is a testament to the human capacity for change. His metamorphosis from petty criminal to visionary leader demonstrates that we are not static beings, and gives hope that people and societies can evolve. There is still so much to learn from his uncompromising example.