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Computers in the 1990s

Hi there! Let‘s take a nostalgic trip back to the 1990s, an iconic decade that defined modern personal computing. It was an era of rapid technology advancements that brought computers and the internet into mainstream life. Ready to relive those exciting days?

The 90s were a pivot point where computers transformed from limited business tools to multipurpose devices for creativity, productivity and entertainment. By the end of the decade, over 50% of U.S. households owned a computer compared to just 15% in 1990. Let‘s explore some of the key milestones year-by-year and see how it shaped human progress.

1990-91: GUI Operating Systems For The Masses

Remember the days when you had to type arcane commands into DOS? That changed in 1990 when Microsoft launched Windows 3.0 with an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). It introduced now-familiar elements like drag-and-drop, drop-down menus and the Start button to make computing user-friendly. Windows 3.0 kickstarted the PC revolution, selling over 10 million copies by 1992. By 1995, Windows 95 took things mainstream with clever advertising and bundled Microsoft software like Minesweeper. Those were exciting times!

Apple also upped its GUI game with the 1991 launch of System 7 for Macintosh. It came with a dock, close buttons and other enhancements to the Mac UI. Despite just 10% market share, Macs attracted publishers, designers and multimedia professionals. Did you own one of those stylish Performa or Quadra models?

By the mid-90s, over 80% of personal computers ran Windows or Mac OS. The DOS era was ending as people embraced the simplicity of GUIs. This expanded the PC market beyond techies to ordinary consumers.

1993: The World Wide Web Opens Up

The internet kicked off in the late 60s but it took the World Wide Web to make it truly accessible. Tim Berners-Lee invented HTTP and HTML in 1990 while working at CERN, but 1993 marked the arrival of the first GUI web browsers Mosaic and WorldWideWeb (later renamed Nexus).

I still remember how magical it felt to browse early websites on these browsers! Web pages were mostly plain text back then with some rudimentary formatting. Images had to load separately. But the convenience of clicking links rather than typing URLs was revolutionary. From just 200 websites in 1993, we jumped to over 650,000 sites by the end of the decade!

Early e-commerce also began with Pizza Hut introducing online pizza orders in 1994. But slow 14.4 kbps dial-up connections limited adoption in the 90s. Only 0.4% of the U.S. population was online in 1995 as most people stuck to the print Yellow Pages for finding business information. How times have changed!

1995-96: Killer Apps And Hardware

The mid-90s marked the arrival of killer apps that spurred mainstream PC adoption. Windows 95 was central to this boom. Microsoft also launched Office 95 to complete their software domination. Remember using Word 6.0 and Excel 95?

On the hardware front, PCs became more powerful with the Intel Pentium processor replacing 286/386 chips. Pentium gave a big boost to multimedia capabilities. Average RAM capacity increased from 4MB in 1992 to over 32MB by 1999. My first PC came with a blazing 166Mhz Pentium chip – what were your specs?

This was also when dial-up internet went mainstream with AOL selling pre-configured multimedia PCs. Their "You‘ve got mail!" ad campaign introduced many households to email and chatrooms. Monthly AOL subscriptions soared to 16 million in 1999 from just 200,000 in 1994! Compuserve, Prodigy and local ISPs also gained popularity. Modems crept from 14.4 kbps to 56 kbps, but internet access still felt glacially slow compared to broadband connections today.

1997-99: Mobility, Multimedia And Apple‘s Comeback

Laptops like the Apple PowerBook and IBM ThinkPad gained mainstream appeal in the late 90s as prices dropped under $2000. Their PORTability opened up computing to business travelers. Built-in trackpads and long battery life improved the experience. Global laptop sales skyrocketed from 6 million in 1996 to over 30 million by 1999. Do you remember your first portable computer?

CD-ROMs also replaced floppy disks with each one holding over 600MB of data. This drove software distribution and multimedia experiences. A high-end CPU like the Pentium II was necessary for smooth video and 3D gameplay. Dedicated graphics cards became common to access the newly launched DVD format‘s high quality video and Dolby Digital audio. Gaming system sales doubled from 1990 to 1999 as titles like Half-Life and Age of Empires enjoyed breakout success.

Apple made an impressive comeback in 1998 by launching the translucent iMac. Its all-in-one "internet-ready" design and low $1299 price made Apple cool again. iMac sales hit 800,000 in just 140 days! Updated iMacs followed in 1999 with faster PowerPC G3 processors and CD-RW drives. They came in fun colors like tangerine orange and blueberry blue. Steve Jobs also introduced the industry-changing iBook laptop in 1999 with built-in Wi-Fi allowing wireless internet access. This pioneering move from Apple ignited Wi-Fi adoption.

Closing Thoughts

What an exciting decade for technology enthusiasts! We saw computing go thoroughly mainstream with visionary products like Windows 95 and iMac combined with the dawn of multimedia and mobile experiences. Fixed ethernet networks gave way to untethered Wi-Fi mobility. Dial-up crawled to broadband. Monochrome displays became vibrant LCDs. The 90s cemented the dominance of intuitive GUIs while tech giants like Microsoft, Intel, Dell, Apple and AOL emerged. Most importantly, computers transformed from functional to "personal", ushering a revolution that improved productivity, creativity and human communication. I feel nostalgic thinking about those good old days of computing – what are your favorite 1990s tech memories?

Let me know if you found this blast to the past enjoyable! I‘d be glad to follow up with more tech nostalgia from the incredible 1990s.